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Natural and climatic conditions

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The climatic conditions of the region are distinguished by great diversity and diversity, which is due to the vastness of the territory, a considerable length from north to south, and even greater - from west to east, as well as the irregularity of the relief.
The climate of the region is sharply continental, dry. A high degree of continentality is manifested in large annual and daily temperature amplitudes and in the instability of climate indicators over time (from year to year). The average annual air temperature fluctuates over the territory of the region in the range of 1.4 - 7.3 ° C, and its highest values ​​are typical for the most southern regions - deserts. Summer in the region is very hot, and in the south is sultry and long. The air temperature in summer sometimes rises to 40-48 ° C; winter, on the contrary, is cold, sometimes frost reaches 40-45 ° С and even 50 ° С. On average, the duration of the warm period (with an average daily air temperature above 0 °) varies over the territory of the region from 200 (in the northeast) to 240 days (in the south).
Annual precipitation in the region varies from 130 mm and less to 310 mm and more. The Balkhash area is the least well off. The precipitation of the warm period (IV-X) in the north-east of the region is estimated at an average of 200-270 mm, and in the desert zone only 65-80 mm.
Energy reserves of wind in the region are large enough and can be used for a number of needs of the national economy. In a larger area, the average annual wind speed is 2.0 - 4.4 m / s. The prevailing wind direction in the flat areas of the southern half of the region is east and northeast, in the northeast part of the territory it is south-west and south.
Natural and climatic zones are represented by steppe, semi-desert and desert landscaped zones of the temperate zone. The steppe landscape zone includes the territories of the Nurinsky, Osakarovsky, Bukhar-Zhyrau and Karkaraly regions. Chestnut soils predominate, small areas of humus southern chernozem. In the central parts, some elements of the high-altitude landscape zonality appear. In the granite massifs of the lowlands, birch-pine forests are found on heavily gravelly dark-colored soils. The most common landscapes are floodplain meadows, salt marshes and salt marshes with desert steppe and meadow saline vegetation. The steppe zone is characterized by a dry, sharply continental climate: the summer is hot and dry, the winter has little snow, but severe with winds and storms.
Over the summer period, evaporation exceeds precipitation by 3-7 times. Sharp continentality is determined by severe winter, high summer temperatures, large annual and daily amplitudes of air temperature and low precipitation.
The semi-desert landscape zone includes the territories: Abai, the northern part of the Zhanaarkinsky, Shetsky and Aktogaysky, the southern parts of the Nurinsky and Karkaraly regions. The zone is characterized by a dry and sharply continental climate, light chestnut and brown soils poor in humus, the prevalence of saline soils and salt marshes in lowland areas of relief, and wormwood grass grass stand. The low mountains and hills in the semi-desert zone are covered with coarse-grained, rubble-like soils with fescue-wormwood shrubs.
The desert landscape zone includes the territories of the central, southeastern, and southwestern part of the Ulytau, Zhanaarkinsky, Shetsky and Aktogay districts. The desert zone is characterized by a dry climate, very low precipitation and water resources, a large amount of evaporation, significant daily and annual fluctuations in air and soil temperature, the lack of permanent surface watercourses, accumulation of salt in the upper horizons of the soil, sparse vegetation.
The animal world of the region is very diverse, there are about 70 species of mammals, 205 species of birds, 13 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians and over 20 species of fish.

 

Reserves and other specially protected objects of the Karaganda region


Name

Location

Territory, ha

 

Karkaraly State National Natural Park

Karkaraly district

90 323

 

Zhezkazgan Botanical Garden

Zhezkazgan

62

 

State nature reserves:

 

 

 

Belodymovsky (zoological)

Osakarovskiy district

3 000

 

Belagashsky (zoological)

Bukhar-Zhyrau District

1 500

 

Kuva (zoological)

Karkaraly district

33 500

 

Bektauatinsky (zoological)

Aktogay district

500

 

Karaagashsky (zoological)

Zhanaarkinsky District

15 000

 

Kyzylarai (zoological)

Aktogay district

18 200

 

Ulytau (zoological)

Ulytau district

19 300

 

Turangovy (botanical)

Aktogay district

48

 

Kogashinsky (botanical)

Zhanaarkinsky District

6 800

 

Boldeutas GPP (zoological)

Karkaraly District (opened in 2009)

44 660

 

Дата cоздания: 29 June 2007 06:00
Дата редактирования: 20 November 2018 14:57
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