Karaganda region is the labor and political homeland of the Leader of the Nation, the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev. Karaganda region is located in the central part of the Republic of Kazakhstan, rich in mineral resources. From the picturesque granite massifs of the Karkaraly mountains in the east to Lake Tengiz and the Ulytau mountains in the west, from the Ishim river in the north to the Betpak-Dala desert in the south extends a vast plateau, which the Kazakh people since ancient times poetically called Saryarka. Here you can also find endless feather grass steppes with small rivers, the blue expanse of lakes drying in summer and the bustling surf of Balkhash Lake, cracked takyrs of deserts and bizarre mountain gorges with picturesque pines and rocks. This is the land where interaction and mutual enrichment of cultures of the tribes and peoples of the Eurasian continent, the East and the West, took place since ancient times. She keeps the memory and traces of ancient cultures in numerous rock paintings of primitive artists, which depict scenes of life, hunting and competitions. Archaeological finds indicate that people engaged in hunting and fishing lived in the territory of Central Kazakhstan as early as the Paleolithic era, agriculture and cattle breeding originated in the Bronze Age, and irrigation systems appeared. In the period of Begazy – Dandybay culture (10th – 12th centuries BC), along with cattle breeding, ore mining and smelting began to play an important role in the development of the productive forces. At the beginning of the XVI century, the territory of Central Kazakhstan was part of the vast Kazakh Khanate, a state education that emerged on the basis of the economic and ethnic community of the three zhuz. This unity is evidenced by the ancient monuments of the sacred land of Ulytau, whose role in the formation of the Kazakh statehood is unusually large. Stella depicting the signs of the main Kazakh clans in the Tanbalytas memorial is a symbol of the unity and solidarity of the Kazakh people. Karaganda region is known in history for the northern branch of the ancient Silk Road that passed through its territory. Historically, this region was a commercial artery, a channel of economic and cultural exchange between Kazakhstan and other countries. Suffice it to recall the famous Koyandinsky fair, which was held annually in the territory of Karkaraly district. Here, every summer, various regions of Kazakhstan traded not only with their closest neighbors - Russia and Central Asia, but also with the countries of the Middle East and China. In the 30s-40s of the 20th century, the region was a place of deportation of repressed persons. It housed the infamous CARLAG. After the Second World War, a concentration camp was stationed in Spassk, where the Memorial to the victims of Stalinist totalitarianism is now open. Among the countries that paid tribute to the memory of their countrymen are Hungary, Japan, Italy, Russia, Germany, Poland, Romania, France, Finland, Lithuania, the Philippines and Ukraine. According to historians, there are 5152 prisoners of war of various nationalities. Karaganda region was formed on March 10, 1932, with the center in the city of Petropavlovsk. According to the administrative division of 1936, the Karaganda region was divided into 2 regions: North Kazakhstan (with the center in Petropavlovsk) and Karaganda region (with the center in Karaganda). Thus, from July 29, 1936, Karaganda becomes the administrative and cultural center of the Karaganda region. By the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 3, 1997, the borders of the Karaganda region were changed, with the inclusion of the territory of the abolished Zhezkazgan region. By the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and by the decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 23, 1997, the boundaries of rural areas belonging to the Karaganda region were changed, some of them were renamed.